Answer: Proper Use of the Ibid. Terminology

F.A.Q. #12

Dear Mr Radford,

I would be grateful for information.  Can you put “Ibid.“ at the TOP of a footnote section when referring to a previous book, which full title is immediately placed before this “Ibid.“ but on previous page?  Also, do you use “Ibid.“ to refer to a previous book ONLY or to the WHOLE previous footnote? There are some situations when I am referring to two different authors (2 books) in one footnote and in the next footnote only to the last author (1 book). Can I then use “Ibid.“ or should I specify that it is only the last book.

Thank you for your help.

Regards.

Ania (Poland)


Answer

1) Can I put “Ibid.“ at the TOP of the footnote section when referring to a previous book, which full title is placed immediately before this “Ibid.“ but on a previous page?

Answer:

If you decide to use a continuous footnote method (from the beginning to the end of your document without any per section division), then you can use the “Ibid.“ even if the full title of the source appears on a previous page.  But, if you use a per section footnote method (the first footnote of each section starts over at number 1), then you can use the “Ibid.“ when the full title of the source immediately appears on a previous page (must also be the previous footnote) but not if it appeared in a previous section’s page; in such a case, you would have to include all of the required footnote information.

2) Do you use “Ibid.“ to refer to a previous book ONLY or to the WHOLE previous footnote and what if this particular footnote regards two different authors (2 books)?

Answer:

“Ibid. is to be included whenever an identical reference to the previous footnote is used; the page number can be the same or can be different (in which case, you would indicate the different page number).  Now, if the previous footnote regards two different authors (2 books) and the next footnote regards only one of the two previously cited authors and/or books, it is not an identical reference and “Ibid.“ should not be used.  Hence, you should include a fully referenced footnote instead of using “Ibid.“.




 


Citing a Book Written by Numerous Authors

Citing the Back Cover of a Book

Endnotes’ Procedure and Number of References

Footnote for a Foreword

Footnote Regarding an Expert Author’s Paragraph

Footnotes and Copyright Protected Documents

Footnotes and Direct References

Footnotes and Official Letters

Footnotes and Punctuation Marks

Footnoting a Citation from a Translated Book

Numbering and Continuation of Footnotes

Positioning of the Number

Proper Reference for the Transcription of a Conference

Proper Use of the Ibid. Terminology

Quoting a Book’s Section Written by a Single Author

Quoting from a Dictionary

Quoting from a Website

Reference for a Scholar’s Lecture

Reference for an Essay Published in a Book with Many Authors

Referencing Photos and Pictures

Two Footnotes in a Single Sentence

Using a Source More Than Once



Author : Robert Radford, M.A. © MMXIX.