Answer: Footnotes and Direct References

F.A.Q. #20

If, in the narrative of your works, you make a direct reference to your source such as “In his book Jefferson the President, author Dumas Malone asserts that Thomas Jefferson was blah, blah, blah, etc.”, would I still need a footnote?  I am thinking probably so to document publisher, page number, etc.

Thank you so much for your time and I appreciate your very detailed answer.



If you quote another author (using his exact same words) or if you stipulate another author’s theory, argumentation, idea or group of ideas, then a footnote must be used in order to clearly identify the source of your information.  Hence, if you state in your paper that “In his book, Jefferson the President, author Dumas Malone asserts that Thomas Jefferson was (insert information here)”, then you will also have to add a reference number at the end of your sentence as well as a reference note (footnote, endnote or electronic reference). The reference number is linked to the reference note.


Citing a Book Written by Numerous Authors

Citing the Back Cover of a Book

Endnotes’ Procedure and Number of References

Footnote for a Foreword

Footnote Regarding an Expert Author’s Paragraph

Footnotes and Copyright Protected Documents

Footnotes and Direct References

Footnotes and Official Letters

Footnotes and Punctuation Marks

Footnoting a Citation from a Translated Book

Numbering and Continuation of Footnotes

Positioning of the Number

Proper Reference for the Transcription of a Conference

Proper Use of the Ibid. Terminology

Quoting a Book’s Section Written by a Single Author

Quoting from a Dictionary

Quoting from a Website

Reference for a Scholar’s Lecture

Reference for an Essay Published in a Book with Many Authors

Referencing Photos and Pictures

Two Footnotes in a Single Sentence

Using a Source More Than Once

Author : Robert Radford, M.A. © MMXIX.