– Education, Methodology, Social Sciences and Technology
Citation Style

Chicago (aka Turabian)

Updated on / dernière mise à jour : 12/09/2023

The Chicago citation style, also known as Turabian style, is a widely used citation method for academic writing in the humanities. It was first developed by Kate L. Turabian, a former graduate student and later the dissertation secretary at the University of Chicago, in her manual "A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations" first published in 1937. The manual was created to provide a concise guide for students on how to properly format their academic writing and reference sources.

The Chicago citation style is comprised of two different methods: the Notes-Bibliography system and the Author-Date system. The Notes-Bibliography system is commonly used in the arts, humanities and some social sciences, and it uses footnotes or endnotes to provide citation information for the sources used in a paper. The Author-Date system, on the other hand, is used in the physical, natural, and social sciences, and it uses in-text citations and a corresponding reference list to give credit to sources.

One of the unique features of the Chicago citation style is the use of ibid, short for the Latin word "ibidem", meaning "in the same place." This term is used in the Notes-Bibliography system to refer to the same source that was cited in the preceding footnote or endnote. Additionally, the Chicago style also allows for the use of short forms for frequently cited sources, which can save space and improve the readability of a paper.

The Chicago citation style has evolved over the years to keep up with changing technology and the increasing availability of new types of sources. For example, the latest edition of Turabian's manual, now called "A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers," includes guidelines for citing electronic sources, such as websites, blogs and social media posts.

In conclusion, the Chicago citation style has a rich history and has been a trusted and widely used method for academic writing for over 80 years. Its guidelines and principles continue to provide students and researchers with a clear and consistent way to give credit to their sources and avoid plagiarism. Whether you are using the Notes-Bibliography system or the Author-Date system, it is important to follow the rules of the Chicago citation style in your academic writing to ensure that your work is properly formatted and that your sources are accurately and ethically cited.


Chicago (Turabian)

Brown, Dan. Deception Point. New York: Atria Books, 2001. 384 p.


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