– Education, Methodology, Social Sciences and Technology

Question: Proper Use of the Ibid. Terminology

F.A.Q. #12

Dear Mr Radford,

I would be grateful for information.  Can you put "Ibid." at the TOP of a footnote section when referring to a previous book, which full title is immediately placed before this "Ibid." but on previous page?  Also, do you use "Ibid." to refer to a previous book ONLY or to the WHOLE previous footnote? There are some situations when I am referring to two different authors (2 books) in one footnote and in the next footnote only to the last author (1 book). Can I then use "Ibid." or should I specify that it is only the last book.

Thank you for your help.


Ania (Poland)

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