Proper Use of the Ibid. Terminology

F.A.Q. #12

Dear Mr Radford,

I would be grateful for information.  Can you put “Ibid. at the TOP of a footnote section when referring to a previous book, which full title is immediately placed before this Ibid. but on previous page?  Also, do you use Ibid. to refer to a previous book ONLY or to the WHOLE previous footnote? There are some situations when I am referring to two different authors (2 books) in one footnote and in the next footnote only to the last author (1 book). Can I then use Ibid. or should I specify that it is only the last book.

Thank you for your help.


Ania (Poland)



Robert Radford, M.A. © MMXIX

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